Amazon Financial Reporting


Amazon was incorporated in 1994 in Washington and later reincorporated in 1996 in Delaware with its main headquarters found in Seattle in Washington (Osterwalder, 2004).  The main objective of this revolutionary store is to serve enterprises, sellers, consumers and content creators online. .It also provides other services such as advertising and co-branded credit card agreements. It is operated geographically comprising of the North America and international segments. The consumers are served through retail websites and focus on selection, price, and convenience. It has diversified its business operations by manufacturing and selling of electronic devices. Programmers of this company also designs some user management system that enables buyers and sellers to auction their products online. Amazon also has managed to brand some of their client’s websites these programs are designed for various groups in the society. These groups of users are filmmakers, app developers, musicians, authors and other users to utilize this open source market place. The company also serves developers and enterprises of all sizes through AWS, which provides access to technology infrastructure that enables virtually any type of business. Over the years Amazon has shown a lot of efforts when it comes to serving customers .We are going to analyze on the financial details of the Amazon (Timmers, 2004)


Financial analysis of the Amazon.

The revenue is derived from the various products and services offered to customers. On cost reduction, they seek to focus more on fixed cost rather than variable costs which inflate expenditure. In reduction of variable cost per unit to enable lower prices to customers, increasing direct sourcing, increase discounts from suppliers and reduction of detects are important measures while in minimizing fixed cost improvement of efficiencies and maintenance of  a lean culture are necessary (Zott & Amit,2007). For profits to be realized income or revenue must be higher than expenditure or cost. The total operating expenses were seen to increase moderately from the year 2011 to the year 2013. It is worth noting that there were increased sales with time. This was as a result of increased costs in the sales, digital content and shipping costs. The advertising to increase traffic. These costs are also included in the financial statements. The increases payroll and related expenses have led to the increased administrative costs. These have been on the lower hand reduced the gross profit in return (Osterwalder, 2004).

Other costs that were involved include stock-based compensations done to employees that were currently on duty and those who are new. Income taxes varied from time to time due to the pre-tax and taxable income and how they related to each other gross profit was seen to increase throughout the years from 2011 to 2013. This is because of the increased sales in services. The sales were arrived at from third party seller fees and related shipping charges. Marketing is very important in every business. The company uses online marketing methods like the portal (Zott & Amit, 2007).



Net sales

This sales comprise of both product and services sales. This product sales total revenue from the s products sales, shipping fees and digital content where we are the seller of record. Services sales are the third-party seller fees earned from digital content subscriptions, and non-retail activities such as AWS, advertising services, and our co-branded credit card agreements (Timmers,2004).The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of, Inc., its wholly-owned subsidiaries, and those entities in which the company has a variable interest and of which we are the primary beneficiary. Intercompany balances and transactions between consolidated entities are eliminated.












Table showing the company’s sales for the three consecutive years.

  2011 2012 2013
North America


$44517 $34813 $26705
International $29935


$26280 $21372
Consolidated $74452 $61093 $48077
North America


28% 30% 43%
International 14%


23% 38%
Consolidated 22%


27% 41%
North America


28% 30% 43%
International 19% 27% 31%


Consolidated 24% 29% 37%


North America 60%


57% 56%
International 40%


43% 44%
Consolidated 100% 100% 100%



Sales grew from 22% in 2011 to 27% in 2012 and then to 41% in 2013 demonstration an increasing in sales in the three years. North America grew from

North America sales grew 28%, 30%, and 43% in 2013, 2012, and 2011, compared to the earlier years. This reflects an increase in unit sales by the company. This is as a result of continued efforts in reduction of prices to customers, shipping offers by sales in faster growing categories like electronics, increment in stock inventory availability and offerings which drive more sales (Timmers, 2004)

The amazon international product sales grew by 14%, 23%, and 38% in 2013, 2012, and 2011 respectively when compared other years. This has been caused by the measures we listed above which are; continued efforts in reduction of prices to customers, shipping offers by sales in faster growing categories like electronics ,increment in stock inventory availability and offerings which drive more sales. In addition, changes in currency had an impact on international sales by $(1.3) billion, $(853) million, and $1.1 billion in 2013, 2012, and 2011.It is however projected than the international segment should produce 50% or more on net sales.






Financial status and analysis.


This is derived from the consolidated financial statements.

In the balance sheet of years 2013 and 2012 ending in December 31 show various information which dictate on the financial position of the company. Cash and its equivalents increased from $8084 to 8656 from 2012 to 2013.Marketable securities also increased from $3664 to $3789 in the same period. Inventories or stock also increased from$ 6031 to $7411 showing progress in the company. This makes an increase in total currents assets from $21296 to $24625 from 2012 to 2013.There is a major increase in the total assets from $32555 to $40159 in the two years. As long as the liabilities are concerned the debtors amounted to $15133 in 2013 which is an increase from $13318 in 2012.There is also an increase in accrued expenses and unearned revenue in the two years bring the total figure of the current liabilities to $3191 in 2013 and 3084 in 2012.The balance sheet further shows us an increment in total long term liabilities over the two years. An equitable company making good profits should show a decrease in liabilities rather than an increase. There is an outstanding shares of $5.It is also well noticeable that the company has filed a decrease in accumulated loss over the two years from $239 to $185.The retained earnings have also increased from $1916 to$2190 bring the total stock holders’ equity from $9746 from $8192.



This is what is available for sale. They are accounted for using the FIFO method, first in, first out meaning that what comes to the store first must be sold first ( Zott & Amit,2007 ).This requires good and proper store keeping. They are valued at a cost less than that of the market. In this valuation based on recent trade of securities in active market or based to quote market prices. Inventory forms a major part in determination of sales and also affects the profit and loss account (Timmers, 2004,)




















Osterwalder, A. (2004). The business model ontology: A proposition in a design science approach. Institut d’Informatique et Organisation. Lausanne, Switzerland, University of Lausanne, Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales HEC173.

Timmers, P. (2004). Business models for electronic markets. Electronic markets8(2), 3-8.

Zott, C., & Amit, R. (2007). Business model design and the performance of entrepreneurial firms. Organization Science18(2), 181-199.


English 101 paper


General Writing

This is a story about Iona Grayson. A girl who was born in the United States of America and had a rich background. Iona was a happy girl who got everything whatever she wanted or asked for. He father was a famous industrialist and her mother was a socialite. Both of her parents excelled in their fields and had good reputation in the society. Being born in such a good family, Iona used to be the object of many people’s envy. She was lissome, beautiful, fair and smart girl who was good in her studies as well. Her parents loved her a lot and she too reciprocated the same. The society respected her father for he was a very noble citizen and he used to contribute to a lot of charities and her mother was very popular in her circle as she was a good-natured lady with a kind heart. Both of her parents kept Iona as a well-kept diamond and she was provided with the best of facilities at her home and school. Iona had everything. A good life, good parents, good friends and everything one can ask for. But one day everything changed.

Iona’s mother went to New York for a charity event and when she came back, he had a surprise for Iona. During her visit to a juvenile prison, Iona’s mother came across Xavier, an 18 year old who was serving his last days in the prison on account to juvenile violence. He had his home in Mexico but after his father’s death he had nowhere to go. There was something in his eyes that caught Mrs. Grayson’s attention. She decided to take the boy to her home. She had been witnessing the need of a sibling for Iona since long. The longing for a sibling was evident in Iona’s eyes. Her mother thought that it will be a good surprise for her. She consulted Iona’s father and adopted the guy. When she got back home, Iona was over the moon finding what surprise her mother had for her. Iona had finally found a true friend in Xavier. Xavi was a good boy who spoke less. His courteous manners won everyone’s heart. He was a silent boy who never spoke much. Iona used to shae every single thing with him and she was very happy to have a confidant in him. She never stopped thanking her parents for this nice gift they had given to her.

Being socially active people, Iona’s parents used to be out of the city most of the days and Iona and Xavier used to sit at home and enjoy the luxuries they had. Iona taught things to Xavier and Xavier was sharp enough to learn everything in one go. One fine day, Mr. Grayson had to leave town for a press conference for 2 days. Iona’s mother was already out for the week. Both the kids were safe at home. But destiny had something else planned for Iona. After a day of having friends at home, Iona was safely tucked in her blanket by her care-taker, Mrs. Ellena. The caretaker left after her day was over. Iona was sleeping soundly until she felt a hand crawling over her. It was Xavier. She got scared and pretended to sleep. But his hands did not stop exploring her. She finally decided to retaliate and pushed Xavier off her and ran to the kitchen. Xavier ran after her to catch hold of her but she was fast enough to get into the kitchen and close the door from inside. From the telephone inside her kitchen she was able to inform her father about the incident and he was there by morning. Iona spent her night locked in the kitchen. Her parents were shocked at the heinous act Xavier had done. They called the police too but Xavier had managed to escape after he found out that Iona had reported the crime. He took a lot of cash and valuables with him. Iona was shattered. It took her days to digest that this was real. She closed herself in her room and brooded for hours. Her parents were concerned. But one day, her father decided to talk to her. He gave her the courage to fight back. And the first demand that Iona kept in front of them was that she wanted to go to Mexico to find Xavi. Her parents were not supportive of the idea but after her constant pursuation, they agreed. Iona took her car and the necessities and left for a road trip to Mexico.

There were several moments when she thought of quitting but one thing stopped her. She wanted to ask Xavier…why!!! Why did he do to her after all that she and her family gave him? This question was eating her up from inside. She drove miles after miles, alone and thinking. The road trip was gradually becoming a part of her. Her parents kept tabs on her and she kept updating them about her well-being. The road trip continued with her strong determination of finding Xavier. But there was no sign of him.

On the evening of Christmas, she reached Durango. She decided to stay in a hotel named Hotel Gobernador. Her car had been having some issues during the recent drives. She thought of consulting a mechanic but since she had developed certain sense of hatred for the Mexican people, she was looking for a native American’ shop to help her with the car. She found none. Ultimately she had to surrender and she decided to call the reception guy to help her arrange a mechanic who could rectify the problem.

The mechanic came son. His name was Alejandro. He was the only one to come out and help on the cold holiday. He had a pained look on his face and Iona was not too helpful either. The guy seemed unhappy as he was disturbed in the middle of his party. Iona was feeling agitated as the guy didn’t seem to have enough of equipments even. She was not too hopeful of the problem being rectified. She noticed that the guy needed two wrenches of same size to clean the filter. And he did not have any. Fortunately she happened to have a good set of wrenches in the back of her car. She offered them to Alejandro. The guy went back to work with a lot of dedication after an hour of operation, he managed to clear out the filter and asked Iona to check the same. As soon as she was going to put her hands to check the gas leakage if any, the guys held her hand. Iona, who was already bitter from her last experience, slapped the guy hard across his face. Everyone was stunned. The guy then took out a handkeerchief from his pocket and gave it to her to check the filter as the filter was so cold it would have hurt her hand. Iona was ashamed of her action. She immediately understood and checked the filter. It was mended fine. By the time she turned to pay him the wages, he was already leaving. She ran after him and managed to catch him on time. She then apologised for her mistake. She then offered him the pair of wrenches. She had observed him being extremely elated to work with the smooth pair and after work he wiped and kept them back in the bag with great care. “Le guste?” She asked which meant if he liked them. He replied, “Si! Muy fina.” which meant yes, they are very fine. She then said ,” Un regalo!”. The guy took the gift and left happily, beaming with joy.

Iona was now smiling. She had found the actual her. She was able to understand that the community or country is not bad. Its the people who make it what it is. She now had a relieved frame of mind and the next call she made was to her father. “I am coming home Daddy” she said.

Institutionalized Systematic Review as a Tool for Knowledge Transfer in Sport Management (Summary & Critique)



The article addresses the concept that in many scientific fields, the sports management situation also underlines the growth of scientific production. As such, the abundance and availability of knowledge increases the interest to invest in research synthesis so as to offer complementary research mode besides the endeavors of primary research. This article conducts a systematic review in the sports management field which has not been explored enough so far. At the present, there are no national or international institutions that exist and that can possibly address the systematic review problem in the sport management field. The article utilizes research synthesis in sports management to develop a rigorous and systematic review of knowledge on particular topics and makes sense of the diverse areas of research in making sure that the utilization of the current research findings is done and that there is further development of research in the realm of sport management. The methods involved conducted content analysis and desk research for the various models that are related to systematic reviews. A comparison of the models was also conducted, models which are used for knowledge transfer from the science field to practice in the business world, specifically the business world. On the basis of this knowledge, a model for the systematic knowledge transfer and review was developed which could take a constitutional form was designed, offering a description of the services portfolio of expertise and services, development plan, the policy of interaction as well as communication with the community of users, and the strategy of management.

The results indicated that majority of the developed approaches in the field of systematic review could be observed in the sector of healthcare. The proposed institutional basis to be used in the implementation of the various systematic reviews in organizational structure of sports management in these institutions was explored. The involved organizations were: Center for Reviews and Dissemination; Cochrane Collaboration; The Campbell Collaboration; and The Joanna Briggs Institute. These were subjected to a conceptual framework of the institutionalized review in the management of sport. The framework focused mainly on the Mission and culture following four development stages before proposing a management strategy and organizational structure as well.


The research and review in this article sets the pace for systematic reviews which have not been employed widely enough in the sport management field. The research therefore performs a core responsibility in setting up an institutionalization base that would make it possible for sports management to achieve a similar situation like the sector of health. The paper underlines that the global importance as well as the necessity of systematic review institutionalization in the management of sport is linked to the fact that the concept of sport is a phenomenon that stretches national borderlines and which has significant economic and social dimensions- dimensions which could achieve full potential is they are given the requires organization of sport in perspective.

The content analysis and desk research conducted were thorough enough in the development of a conceptual framework that underlines an institutionalized systematic review in the management of sport. I found the development stages of development stipulated to ensure sustainability and feasibility as useful in the eventual development of the proposed management strategy and organizational structure. This information in this article will be crucial in the sports management field because it will awaken steering groups based on method groups, and collaboration between sports organization in the administration of sport just like in the healthcare sector.

Regarding the proposal made in this article, I think that the proposed institutionalization infrastructure that will enable the corporation of entities in the management of sport will initiate additional management research alongside practice which will be able to address the complications in research synthesis which is plaguing the sport management field. The proposed model is therefore a representation of the first attempt that was ever made to increase the access to international research findings on sports management for the practice of sport in an unbiased manner, which is possible through the use of systematic review methodology in this paper. In the most comprehensive manner, the feedback given by the various stakeholders from the practice of sports management will form the basis as a useful tool that will assist in overcoming the gap that exist between practice and research, which is a fact that has come under heavy critic in the most recent times. It is therefore possible to draw research innovations from the proposed infrastructure, which are connected to knowledge development of transfer science, translational research, and implementation science in the sports management field. In fact, I recollected that application of the principles that underline translational research findings in the field of sports management would not only enable transferable understanding of emergent knowledge in the sports management field for further research purposes but as well will translate research results in the field of sports management practice, and decision making in the day-to-day setting.

I think that if more systematic review cases were involved in the research the practical implication of the paper would be accomplished with the help of the desk research. In this regard then, the systematic review of more cases of the sport management achievement research that are conducted in the international platform and within the institutionalized collaborating entity framework would be able to enable and create an even easier access to the most recent relevant information of the diverse sport management facets for the variety of stakeholders of the sports sector both internationally and nationally. However, with the number of systematic reviews conducted and the analysis through desk research, the paper was able to establish enough practical implication which can be utilized widely in the field of sports management. For instance, the infrastructure which is proposed will be able to provide access to results in the international arena in the realm of sports management for the practice of sport in a way such that bias is eliminated- thanks to using the systematic review methodology. However, I deduce that research synthesis will be needed as a valuable resource to provide information for direction in the future in the research on sports management.













The Ming Dynasty was a dynasty from China as per which the Chinese people got a break from the dynasties of the Manchu and Mongol dominance. China gained a lot of prominence during the reign of the Ming dynasty when there was a lot of political and cultural influence on the Eastern part of Asia, the Turks on the West and the presence of Myanmar and Vietnam towards the South. The Ming dynasty was founded by Zhu Yuanzhang who was a man  from very humble origins who later went onto assume the reigning title of the Hongwu. The Ming dynasty was not only the most powerful but was also the most autocratic of all the dynasties from China.  The Ming dynasty followed in some ways the dynastic cycle of the previous rules. “A dynastic cycle is a periodic alternation of the society between anarchy and despotism. In a society where there are farmers, bandits, rulers the growth in the population can actually impoverish the farmers and simultaneously reduce the surplus per head of the rulers. It is then that the society actually gets involved into a very despotic stationary state or into a dynastic cycle depending upon the fact whether farmers can choke off the growth in the population before the fact that the surplus actually shrinks into such a point where the rulers become bandits”.


The histories of the Dynasties of China actually moved in a cyclical manner. Any new dynasty would overthrow the previous dynasty and the new dynasty would become increasingly corrupt and inefficient as compared with the previous dynasty. It is noteworthy to mention here that even though there was a certain dynastic cycle it was not because of the morality of the rulers but the kind of information that the Emperor would receive changed the course of things. The historians in China get to speak of a dynastic cycle that is more characterized by peace and prosperity in the upswing, when there gets established a new line of the emperors and when there is misery, civil war and decline in the population there happens a time when the dynasty becomes feeble and old. It is quite evident that on the surface the Ming dynasty followed the very standard pattern of the prevailing dynastic cycle. It all began with the Mandate of Heaven being captured by a peasant that had been handed down from a very decadent and a moribund dynasty. There were several of the common elements from its predecessors in this government too.  The ministers were reestablishing a much revivified government from the Confucian age, it also followed with the imperial line getting weaker every day and fell victim to the forces that were responsible for the overthrow of its predecessors. This is quite evident in the filial piety as well where the Ming dynasty seems to be following the set standard path. It was the first Ming emperor, Hongwu proposed the benevolence for its people and members from the office to return to the filial path that was neglected by the Yuan dynasty who were its predecessors.

There are certain other historians who disagree with the fact that the Ming dynasty followed the traditional Chinese penchant for the very stylized pattern of the regeneration and breakdown of the dynasty is in no way typical of the various dynastic changes that have punctuated the imperial history of China.  This deviation from the’ dynastic rule’ can be traced back to the changes that had been instituted during the reign of the Hongwu ruler. It was he only who changed so many things one of them was the one related with the conception of the natural emotions. Whenever he would feel that his subjects would feel in a certain manner he would change the rituals simply so that they could be accorded like the feelings of the rituals. Added fuel to the fire was the Ming literati who even though they were in lacking of the prerogatives of the traditional accorded rulers had actually furthered the progress which had been begun by Hongwu. They felt it was important to change the rituals, modify the old existing ones and invented the new ones so that emotions would seem natural. A very important change can be seen in the changes of the patterns of mourning.

There was a very basic structure of the government that had been established by the Ming dynasty and this structure was later on continued by the succeeding Manchu dynasty and lasted in China till the imperial institution was abolished in the year 1911 and 1912. The civil service system had been perfected during the Ming dynasty and was later on stratified when all of the top most Ming officials had entered the bureaucracy after having passed an examination. There exited a Censor ate which was an office designated to look at the issues of corruption and misconduct and it was made into a separate organ of the government. All kinds of affairs were handled differently by the three agencies. Each of the agencies would report to the distinct bureaus in the central government.

The period of the Ming Dynasty is known to be one of the most glorious periods in the history of China. The Dynasty contributed greatly to the modern system of the making of the very spectacular edifices, the Great Wall of China, some very enchanting tourist attractions and it is also quite well known for it’s some of the most amazing innovations.  The Dynasty introduced different kinds of paper and printing, ship rudders and the   bristle toothbrush.

Works Cited Page:

Kutcher Norman.  Mourning in Late Imperial China: Filial Piety and the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  1999.print

Twitchett Denis, Fairbank K. John.  The Cambridge History of China. Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press. 1988.print

An Imperial Edict Restraining officials from evil. “Ming Dynasty Government. Promotion of Social Order and Morality”. (n.d.).  print.

do my homework for me

  Part IV. Symbolic Interaction Theory



Symbolic Interaction Theory

The Symbolic Interaction Theory can be considered as a theatrical framework that views humans as living in a world of meaningful objects. In itself, a micro-level social orientation theory and is indeed an interpretive sociology framework that acknowledges that it is humans themselves who create meaning for the objects in their surroundings (Kivisto, 2013). An illustration of a situation in which the Symbolic Interaction Theory is well illustrated is the elevator scene from the movie “You’ve Got Mail”. The scene takes place in an elevator (lift), where Joe Fox and his girlfriend (Parker Posey) and two other people get stuck in an elevator.

First and foremost, the interaction of the individuals which occurs in the ill-fated elevator is in itself a small scale unit of social interaction which triggers the occupants to start interpreting the situation and offer meanings of various aspects from within their interpretive abilities. This makes the scene resemble a Micro-Level Orientation. The second element that makes the scene to represent the Symbolism Interaction Theory is linkable to the occupants’ actions. When the elevator gets stuck, Joe Fox expresses concerns of inquiry and spontaneously asks what was happening. The other male in the lift, Charlie, responds explaining the possibility that the elevator had got stuck. Charlie further and spontaneously interprets the situation as caused by errors that would be rectified by pressing all the elevator buttons. When this option does not work, Charlie suggests that they jump since, as he had interpreted, the elevator had not sensed their presence (YouTube, 2009). All these represent symbols that trigger interaction between the four individuals. A keen study on the happenings unfolds that the interaction is  initiated when conversations are engaged, and symbolize interpretive sociology (Kivisto, 2013).

In no time, the four individuals start sharing their thoughts as a way of socializing, which can  be considered to have originated from the short time interaction. All of a sudden, they started expressing what was important in their lives. Therefore, in these aspects of interactions, the elevator scene turns out to be a valid illustration of the Symbolic Interaction Theory





















Kivisto, P. (2013). Social Theory: Roots and branches. New York: Oxford University Press.

YouTube,. (2009). You’ve Got Mail – Elevator Scene. Retrieved 21 June 2015, from